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Ahmed M. Ebid

Basic information

Name : Ahmed M. Ebid
Title: Lecturer
Google Schoolar Link
Personal Info: Lecturer Ahmed Abdelkhaleq - Structural Engineering Department He graduated from Structural Engineering department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt in June1996. He got his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the same department in 2001 and 2004 respectively. Presently, he is a lecturer in structural department, faculty of engineering, Future University in Egypt. His scientific research interests are in Geo-technical engineering, concrete structures, applications of (AI) in structural engineering. He published 16 researches in Geo-technical engineering, repairing using FRP, optimization of concrete structures & applications of (GP) in structural engineering. He is a consultant in Geo-technical engineering & Concrete structures since 2012. View More...

Education

Certificate Major University Year
PhD Civil Engineering Ain Shams University - Faculty Of Engineering 2004
Masters Civil Engineering Ain Shams - Egypt 2000
Bachelor Civil Engineering Ain Shams - Egypt 1996

Researches /Publications

Decision Support System to Select the Optimum Steel Portal Frame Coverage System - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/07/2020

Portal frame systems are widely used as coverage system in industrial projects. Selecting the proper portal frame system for a certain project depends on many technical, financial and logistical factors such as estimated cost, construction duration, availability of materials, equipment and skilled labor, besides environmental factors such as recycling and durability. The aim of this research is to create a Decision Support System (DSS) to decide the optimal portal frame system considering all these factors. The proposed (DSS) depends on integrating the Value Engineering (VE) concept with the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to identify the optimum system. The considered systems in this research are conventional portal made of hot rolled section, pre-engineered built-up portal frame, trussed frames and portal Frame truss. The developed (DSS) was tuned for the current Egyptian market conditions in 2019 and successfully verified using four selected projects with different height to span ratio.

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"Selecting optimum structural system for R.C. multistory buildings considering direct cost" - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Said. Y. Haggag, Ibrahim A Rashid

01/04/2020

Reinforced concrete multi-story buildings are commonly used in residential, commercial, and administrative projects; therefore, selecting the optimum structural system with minimum cost is the top priority of the structural designer. Although earlier researches intensively studied this issue, it is still not completely covered. This research aims to introduce recommendations for the optimum gravity and lateral systems for a multi-story reinforced concrete (RC) building from a perspective of direct cost. In order to achieve that goal, a parametric study was carried out using 72 RC buildings with several stories ranged between 5 and 50 floors, and grid spacing ranged between 6.0 and 12.0 m. Four floor systems were considered, solid, 2 ways ribbed, waffle, and flat slabs. Also, three lateral loads resisting systems were considered which are intermediate moment resisting frames, shear walls, and a dual system. The study covered the low, medium and high rise buildings. The results indicated that the dual system is the most suitable system for medium and high rise buildings with combination with solid slabs for short spans and ribbed slabs for medium and long spans. On the other hand, frame with solid slabs is the optimum for low rise with short spans and shear wall with the flat slab is the optimum for low rise with medium and long spans.

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Estimation of the undrained shear strength of east Port-Said clay using the genetic programming - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Ahmed H. El-Bosraty, Ayman L. Fayed

01/03/2020

(CPT) is a widely acceptable and reliable geotechnical in situ test. It provides quick and truthful large amount of data about soil proprieties. Undrained cohesion of clay is a main soil parameter that could be estimated from (CPT) results as it is directly correlated to the tip resistance through the empirical cone factor (Nk). Several studies have been carried out to determine reliable values of the (Nk) factor. This study focused on using (GP) to correlate the (Nk) value of east Port Said clay with consistency limits that can be easily determined. Records of 102 data sets were gathered from site & lab investigations in considered region consists of (CPT) results and corresponding triaxial, unconfined compression, consistency limits and physical properties tests. The collected data were divided into training set to develop the (GP) models and validation set to test the developed formulas which show prediction accuracies between 93% and 96%.

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Decision Support System for Optimum Soft Clay Improvement Technique for Highway Construction Projects - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/03/2020

Identifying a soft clay improvement strategy is a main challenging in highway construction projects due to the various conditions involved. Hence, the objective of this paper is to present a Decision Support System (DSS) to select the optimum soft clay improvement technique for this type of projects. Value Engineering (VE) is integrated with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the proposed (DSS). Using the AHP provides a robust means of identifying the relative importance of any criteria or factors for soft clay improvement alternatives. The scope of this study includes four of the most commonly used techniques for soft clay improvement: soil replacement, pre-loading, vertical drains, and the construction of embankments on piles. The proposed methodology was verified using four case studies of highways under construction in northern Egypt. The results show that the proposed (DSS) successfully predicted the optimum soft clay improvement technique in three out of the four cases.

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Effect of Wrapping Reinforced Concrete Surface with FRP Sheets on Corrosion Resistance - 01/1

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mohamed R. Masoud

01/12/2019

Read full-text Download citation Copy link References (9) Abstract Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) sheets are widely used now in the field of repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete structures. The presence of FRP sheets on reinforced concrete surface for repair and strengthening provides some level of protection for reinforced concrete against corrosion. This kind of protection can be considered as an indirect protection because the main purpose is not for protection but for repair and strengthening. Two fibers/resin systems were considered in the experimental program; the first is glass/polyester system with one, two, and three layers of glass fibers and the second is carbon/polyester system with one layer of carbon fibers. Effectiveness of the indirect method was evaluated through comparing them with the well-known direct protection methods (coating of steel surface, coating of concrete surface, and by using concrete admixtures). A total set of 16 accelerated corrosion cells were tested in order to measure the total mass loss of the reinforcing steel bars which expresses the effectiveness of all direct and indirect protection methods.

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Efficiencies of Different Techniques to Protect Rebars Against Corrosion - 01/1

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Ahmed M. Ebid, Mohamed A. Khalaf, Noura Kh. Abdel Raheem

01/12/2019

Corrosion of steel reinforcement is considered one of the major causes of reinforced concrete deterioration. In the last few decades, researchers studied many different rebar protection techniques against corrosion. Three famous techniques were considered in this research, which are rebars protective coats, sacrificial anode and impressed current. Rebars protective coats are the most used technique in small projects. They are produced with different trade names according to the manufacture. On other hand, sacrificial Anode technique is recommended for aggressive environments. Finally, impressed current technique is usually used for large and corrosion sensitive structures. The aim of this research is to compare the protection efficiency of each of these three techniques. In order to achieve that goal, two experimental programs were carried out; the first program measured the protection efficiency in terms of rebars mass loss using sixteen lollypop samples. The program tested the efficiency of two types of protective coats, three types of sacrificial anodes besides the impressed current using two concrete grades. The second program measured the protection efficiency in terms of loss in structural capacity using six (100x100x1500mm) concrete simple beams. Only one type of protective coating is used besides the impressed current technique. In both programs, all samples were tested using accelerated corrosion test and results were compared to the control samples. Programs results showed that impressed current is the most effective protection technique because it prevents the corrosion completely. On other hand, the efficiency of sacrificed anode technique depends on the activity of the anode material and finally, the efficiency of protected coats dependents on material base of the coat.

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Identification of Knowledge Gaps in Applying Knowledge Areas of Project Management - 01/1

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

S.Y. Aboul Haggag, Ibrahim Abdel Rashid

01/12/2019

During the past two decades, structural engineering scenario has changed drastically. At present, there are no universally accepted standards for the identification of issues and knowledge gaps in the applying of knowledge areas of project management both in any phase in project management. It is essential to identify the knowledge gaps in the project management process, so the purpose of this paper is an overview of issues and knowledge gaps in the applying of knowledge areas of project management to stimulate a model for a decision support system, and identification of these issues and knowledge gaps. This identification should further lead to the establishment of information regarding existing issues and knowledge gaps in project management. The results of the study should also provide a foundation for a research project proposal. This research is an exploratory study, so the results are only propositions; hence, an empirical survey should be carried out in the future.

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Effect of Plastering Layer on Corrosion Resistances of Reinforced Concrete Beams - 01/1

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mohamed R. Masoud

01/10/2019

Reinforced concrete structures are subjected to deterioration due to many factors such as corrosion of reinforcing steel. Ultimate strengths of structural elements can be greatly affected by these deteriorating factors. There are numerous methods and techniques used to protect these structural elements. The mortar layer (Plastering) is considered the first defense line against all the deteriorating factors. The main goal of this research is to investigate to what extent the plastering layer can protect reinforced concrete beams against corrosion. The aim of the experimental program is to study the effect of plastering layer on corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete beams. Four reinforced concrete beams (100×200×1100 mms) and four Lollypop specimens (cylinders 100×200 mms) were tested and described as follows: • A beam and a lollypop specimen without any plastering layer (control). • A beam and a lollypop specimen with traditional plastering layer (cement + sand + water). • A beam and a lollypop specimen with modified plastering (traditional plastering + waterproof admixtures). • A beam and a lollypop specimen with painted and modified plastering layer (traditional plastering + waterproof admixtures + external waterproof paint). These eight specimens were subjected to corrosion using accelerated corrosion technique, after that the four beams were tested in flexure under three point load arrangement while the four lollypops were used to calculate the total mass loss due to accelerated corrosion. The test results were used to figure out the effect of plastering layer on corrosion resistance of RC beams.

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Predicting (Nk) factor of (CPT) test using (GP): Comparative Study of MEPX & GN7 - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Ahmed H. ELbosraty, Ayman L. Fayed

01/03/2019

Static cone penetration test (CPT) is a broadly satisfactory and dependable geotechnical in-situ apparatus that gives brisk and honest substantial measure of data about soil classification, stratification and properties. Un-drained shear strength of clay (cu) is one of the principle soil parameters that could be sensibly evaluated from the (CPT) results, as it is specifically connected to the tip resistance through the experimental cone factor (Nk). Earlier researches showed that (Nk) value depends on type of soil, nature and stress history conditions and many other variables. Construction development in some locations with thick deposits of soft to very soft clays motivates extensive researches to define the reasonable value of the (Nk) factor for such types of clay. The performed study concentrated on utilizing the genetic programming technique (GP) to predict (Nk) value of clay using the consistency limits that can be easily determined in the laboratory. A set of 102 records were gathered from the CPT site investigations and corresponding consistency limits and other physical properties experiments, were divided into training set of 72 records and validation set of 30 records. Both (GN7) & (MEPX) software were used to apply (GP) on the available data. Four trials for each software with different chromosome lengths were performed to correlate the (Nk) factor with the clay consistency limits, water content (wc) and unit weight (γ) using training data set, then, the produced relations were tested using the validation data set. The four generated formulas using (GN7) showed accuracies ranging between 93% and 97% and coefficient of determination (R 2) ranging between 0.7 and 0.9, while the other four formulas form (MEPX) showed accuracy not exceeding 95% and coefficient of determination (R 2) ranging between 0.45 and 0.75.

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Predicting (Nk) factor of (CPT) test using (GP): Comparative Study of MEPX & GN7 - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Ahmed H. ELbosraty, Ayman L. Fayed

01/03/2019

Static cone penetration test (CPT) is a broadly satisfactory and dependable geotechnical in-situ apparatus that gives brisk and honest substantial measure of data about soil classification, stratification and properties. Un-drained shear strength of clay (cu) is one of the principle soil parameters that could be sensibly evaluated from the (CPT) results, as it is specifically connected to the tip resistance through the experimental cone factor (Nk). Earlier researches showed that (Nk) value depends on type of soil, nature and stress history conditions and many other variables. Construction development in some locations with thick deposits of soft to very soft clays motivates extensive researches to define the reasonable value of the (Nk) factor for such types of clay. The performed study concentrated on utilizing the genetic programming technique (GP) to predict (Nk) value of clay using the consistency limits that can be easily determined in the laboratory. A set of 102 records were gathered from the CPT site investigations and corresponding consistency limits and other physical properties experiments, were divided into training set of 72 records and validation set of 30 records. Both (GN7) & (MEPX) software were used to apply (GP) on the available data. Four trials for each software with different chromosome lengths were performed to correlate the (Nk) factor with the clay consistency limits, water content (wc) and unit weight (γ) using training data set, then, the produced relations were tested using the validation data set. The four generated formulas using (GN7) showed accuracies ranging between 93% and 97% and coefficient of determination (R2) ranging between 0.7 and 0.9, while the other four formulas form (MEPX) showed accuracy not exceeding 95% and coefficient of determination (R2) ranging between 0.45 and 0.75.

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Experimental Study for Strengthening of RC Rectangular Columns with Anchored CFRP Sheets - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mahmoud El-kateb, Amr Zaher

01/01/2019

Debonding between CFRP sheets and concrete surface is one of the most important modes of failure. The common solution to prevent this mode of failure is to extend the CFRP sheets by enough length to avoid debonding. A more advanced technique is to anchor the CFRP sheets to the concrete element using either steel or CFRP anchors. The aim of this research is to study the effect of using CFRP anchors on the capacity of concentric and eccentric RC columns. In order to achieve that goal, ten specimens of RC columns divided into two sets were tested. The first set was tested under concentric load, while the other set was tested under eccentric load. Each set had one control sample, while the other four samples were wrapped with CFRP bands. Two of the wrapped samples were anchored and the others were not. The spacing between CFRP wraps was varied between 80 and 200 mm. The results showed that the concentric and eccentric capacity of the sample increased with decreasing the spacing between CFRP bands as long as the eccentricity is small enough to cause compression failure mode. But for samples with tension failure caused by large eccentricity, the CFRP bands have no effect on the capacity. It was also noted that anchors have no significant effect on the axial capacity of the samples.

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Experimental Study for Strengthening of RC Rectangular Columns with Anchored CFRP Sheets - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mahmoud El-kateb, Amr Zaher

01/01/2019

Debonding between CFRP sheets and concrete surface is one of the most important modes of failure. The common solution to prevent this mode of failure is to extend the CFRP sheets by enough length to avoid debonding. A more advanced technique is to anchor the CFRP sheets to the concrete element using either steel or CFRP anchors. The aim of this research is to study the effect of using CFRP anchors on the capacity of concentric and eccentric RC columns. In order to achieve that goal, ten specimens of RC columns divided into two sets were tested. The first set was tested under concentric load, while the other set was tested under eccentric load. Each set had one control sample, while the other four samples were wrapped with CFRP bands. Two of the wrapped samples were anchored and the others were not. The spacing between CFRP wraps was varied between 80 and 200 mm. The results showed that the concentric and eccentric capacity of the sample increased with decreasing the spacing between CFRP bands as long as the eccentricity is small enough to cause compression failure mode. But for samples with tension failure caused by large eccentricity, the CFRP bands have no effect on the capacity. It was also noted that anchors have no significant effect on the axial capacity of the samples.

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Experimental Study for Strengthening of RC Rectangular Columns with Anchored CFRP Sheets - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mahmoud El-kateb, Amr Zaher

01/01/2019

The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the behavior of strengthened masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames using diagonal CFRP strips under cyclic loads. Ten test specimens were constructed and tested under cyclic lateral loading. Specimens were constructed as 1/3 scale, one-bay, one-storey perforated clay brick-infilled nonductile RC frames. The aspect ratio (lw/hw, where lw is the infill length and hw is the infill height) of masonry-infilled wall was 1.73. CFRP strips were applied with different widths and with three different arrangements such as on both sides (i.e. symmetrically) and on the interior side or the exterior side of the masonry walls. This experimental study investigated the effects of CFRP strips’ width and arrangement type on specimens’ behavior. Strength, stiffness and storey drifts of the test specimens were measured. Test results indicated that, CFRP strips significantly increased the lateral strength and stiffness of perforated clay brick infilled nonductile RC frames. Specimens receiving symmetrical strengthening showed higher lateral strength and stiffness. Specimens at which CFRP strips of the same width were applied to one of the interior or exterior surface of the infill wall showed similar lateral strength and stiffness.

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Experimental Study for Strengthening of RC Rectangular Columns with Anchored CFRP Sheets - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mahmoud El-kateb, Amr Zaher

01/01/2019

The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the behavior of strengthened masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames using diagonal CFRP strips under cyclic loads. Ten test specimens were constructed and tested under cyclic lateral loading. Specimens were constructed as 1/3 scale, one-bay, one-storey perforated clay brick-infilled nonductile RC frames. The aspect ratio (lw/hw, where lw is the infill length and hw is the infill height) of masonry-infilled wall was 1.73. CFRP strips were applied with different widths and with three different arrangements such as on both sides (i.e. symmetrically) and on the interior side or the exterior side of the masonry walls. This experimental study investigated the effects of CFRP strips’ width and arrangement type on specimens’ behavior. Strength, stiffness and storey drifts of the test specimens were measured. Test results indicated that, CFRP strips significantly increased the lateral strength and stiffness of perforated clay brick infilled nonductile RC frames. Specimens receiving symmetrical strengthening showed higher lateral strength and stiffness. Specimens at which CFRP strips of the same width were applied to one of the interior or exterior surface of the infill wall showed similar lateral strength and stiffness.

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Mathematical Approach to Simulate Soil Behavior Under Shallow Compaction - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/05/2018

Surface or shallow compaction is one of the earliest, cheapest and commonly used techniques to improve the physical and mechanical properties of loose soil specially for imported structural fill. It is simply rearranging of soil particles to reduce air ratios using surface static or vibrating mechanical effort. Usually, shallow compaction procedure includes subjecting the loose soil to certain number of compacting equipment passes to archive the accepted compaction level; this number of passes is a function of many parameters such as type of soil, initial soil parameters, compacting equipment characteristics and thickness of soil lift. International codes, specifications and handbooks include just guidelines about the required number of passes; accordingly, it is usually determined based on personal experience and field trials. This research has two goals, the first is to estimate the properties improvement of certain natural surface loose soil under certain surface compaction procedure by calculating the enhancement in soil properties after each pass and updating the soil properties for next pass calculations. The second goal is to use the previous approach to develop set of equations to design surface compaction procedure for imported structural fill, this includes calculating minimum compaction equipment characteristics, maximum lift thickness and minimum number of passes to enhance certain imported fill from certain initial condition to certain final condition. The proposed approach for the first goal was verified using case studies and showed good matches, and the developed designing equations for surface compaction procedure were verified using case studies and showed good matches.

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Decision support system for optimum soft clay improvement technique for highway construction projects - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/01/2018

Identifying a soft clay improvement strategy is a main challenging in highway construction projects due to the various conditions involved. Hence, the objective of this paper is to present a Decision Support System (DSS) to select the optimum soft clay improvement technique for this type of projects. Value Engineering (VE) is integrated with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the proposed (DSS). Using the AHP provides a robust means of identifying the relative importance of any criteria or factors for soft clay improvement alternatives. The scope of this study includes four of the most commonly used techniques for soft clay improvement: soil replacement, pre-loading, vertical drains, and the construction of embankments on piles. The proposed methodology was verified using four case studies of highways under construction in northern Egypt. The results show that the proposed (DSS) successfully predicted the optimum soft clay improvement technique in three out of the four cases.

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STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF HANDY LAY-UP GFRP I-BEAMS - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Mohamed A. Khalaf

01/09/2017

This research work mainly investigates the local production of 12 built up GFRP I-beams using Hand Lay-Up production method (since up-till now there is no pultrusion industry in Egypt). Overall strength characteristics of these beams will determined experimentally and compared to those manufactured by the Pultrusion process. This comparison will help to estimate to how extent the locally manufactured beams (by Hand Lay-Up technique) can be used in full permanent structures (like pultruded beams) or at least used in light and temporary structures. In order to achieve this goal, the experimental study was divided into two stages: The first stage is to manufacture GFRP plates using glass fibers and polyester. Two types of plates were produced one for flange plates and the other for web plates. These two types of plates are different in fibers orientation of different layers within the plate thickness in order to reach the possible higher tensile and flexural strength for flange plates and possible higher shear strength for web plates. Longitudinal and transverse tensile, compressive, and flexural strength for these two types of plates were experimentally determined using coupons tests. The second stage is to produce built-up GFRP I-beams using the aforementioned plates and composite angles. The overall stiffness and modes of failure of these beams were experimentally determined. The obtained results were compared with those of pultruded I-beams manufactured in the United States by pultrusion process. Also three different connecting methods for the 12 tested beams were investigated, namely: Bonding – Bolting – Bolting/Bonding connecting techniques. Of course it is expected that some local fabrication parameters (like fiber and polymer properties available in the local market, labour, temperature, polymer curing …etc) are expected to affect the properties of the fabricated beams specially that these beams are manufactured manually

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Optimum penetration depth of cantilever sheet pile walls in dry granular soil based on reliability analysis concept and its impact on the shoring system cost - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/07/2017

These instructions provide you guidelines for preparing papers for International Journal of Application or Innovation in Cantilevered sheet pile walls are commonly used in shoring systems of deep excavation down to about 5.00 m. The most common design procedure for this type of flexible retaining structures is to determine the required penetration depth for stability and then increasing the calculated penetration depth by 20% to 40% to achieve a factor of safety of about 1.5 to 2.0. This procedure has two disadvantages; first, the procedure does not give accurate values for penetration depth or corresponding factor of safety, second, it ignores the effect of uncertainty in the used geotechnical parameters. The first aim of this study is to overcome those two disadvantages by introduce an alternative formula to determine the optimum penetration depth of cantilever sheet pile walls in dry granular soil based on reliability analysis concept, while, the second aim is to study the impact of using the optimum depth on the cost of the shoring system. The study results assure the validity of provision of increasing the calculated penetration depth by (20% to 40%) and introduced a formula to calculate the required penetration depth to achieve probability of failure of 0.1% and proved that using this optimum depth can reduce the direct cost of the shoring system by 5% to 10% based on internal friction angle of soil

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Optimum replacement depth to control heave of swelling clays - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Hisham Arafat

01/07/2017

The behavior of unsaturated swelling soils under changing of moisture content was intensively studied by many researchers since the 1950’s. Many proposed formulas and techniques were used to classify, describe and predict the swelling behavior and parameters of such type of soil. On the other hand, many techniques are used to allow structures to be founded on swelling soils without suffering any damages due to the soil heave. Replacing the swelling soil with granular mixture is one of the most famous and cheapest techniques especially in case of light structures on shallow layer of swelling soil. The aim of this research is to develop a simplified formula to estimate the heave of swelling soil considering the effect of replaced layer. The developed formula is used to estimate the required replacement depth to avoid damage due to excessive heave.

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THEORETICAL STUDY FOR R.C. COLUMNS STRENGTHENED WITH GFRP WITH DIFFERENT MAIN STEEL RATIO - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Amr Zaher

01/07/2017

It becomes a common practice to strength and repair reinforced concrete columns by wrapping them with GFRP sheets. The aim of this research is to develop a formula to describe the relation between the gain of strength of reinforced concrete square columns, their longitudinal reinforcement and number of warped layers of GFRP sheets. The research is based on simulating loading tests of a set of 12 reinforced concrete columns with different reinforcement ratios and different number of warped layers of GFRP sheets using ANSYS software. The outputs of the ANSYS models are verified using experimental tests results carried out by the author in earlier research. The results of the study are used to develop a proposed formula to correlate the axial capacity of the warped square RC column with its reinforcement ratio and the confining stress caused by the sheets. Values from both proposed formula design and formula of Egyptian Code of Practice (ECP) are compared with ANSYS outputs and experimental results. The final conclusion is that gained strength due to confining equals to (confining stress / Fcu).

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IMAGE COMPRESSION USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/09/2016

The fast growth in digital image applications such as web sites, multimedia and even personal image archives encouraged researchers to develop advanced techniques to compress images. Many compression techniques where introduced whether reversible or not. Most of those techniques were based on statistical analysis of repetition or mathematical transforming to reduce the size of the image. This research is concerning in applying Genetic programing (GP) technique in image compression. In order to achieve that goal, a parametric study was carried out to determine the optimum combination of (GP) parameters to achieve maximum quality and compression ratio. For simplicity the study considered 256 level gray scale image. A special C++ software was developed to carry out all calculations, the compressed images was rendered using Microsoft Excel. Study results was compared with JPEG results as one of the most popular lossy compression techniques. It is concluded that using optimum (GP) parameters leads to acceptable quality (objectively and subjectively) corresponding to compression ratio ranged between 2.5 and 4.5

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OPTIMUM ALTERNATIVE TO REDUCE COLUMN SIZE CONSIDERING BEHAVIOR AND COST IMPACTS ON BUILDING - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/04/2016

The increasing of high raise and heavy industrial construction industry causes increasing in structural columns loads and accordingly their cross sections, on other hand; architectural and mechanical requirements limit the available spaces for columns. Commonly, three alternatives are used to reduce column size to fit into the available space with same axial capacity, the first is to use higher concrete strength, the second is to use composite column (enclosed or in-filled) and the third is to use high strength steel column. In this research, a parametric study is carried out to figure out the impact of each alternative on the structural behavior and direct cost of the project. The study is based on average materials, labor and equipment rates in USA in 2016. Study results indicated that optimum alternative is to use higher concrete strength up to 1.4 times the concrete strength of floors beyond this limit, composite column (enclosed or in-filled) is recommended. Finally high strength steel column is the only alternative for very compacted columns.

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Simple Mathematical Approach to Simulate Granular Fill Behavior under Dynamic Compaction - 01/1

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/11/2015

improving soil parameters using dynamic compaction of was intensively studied by many researchers since 1980’s. Earlier researchers depended on statistical analysis of many case studies and soil dynamic principals to develop empirical formula used in designing dynamic compaction procedure. Recent researchers used different finite element models to describe the behavior of soil under dynamic compaction; those models varied between 1-D simple model and up to 3-D sophisticated ones. The aim of this research is to introduce a simple mathematical approach to simulate ground deformations and soil parameters improvement due to dynamic compaction. The proposed approach consists of two equations, the 1st one used to calculate the ground settlement due to one temper drop, the 2nd one used to calculate the updated soil parameters due to the ground settlement from the previous drop. By applying the two equations successively, both ground settlement and soil parameters improvement could be calculated after each tamper drop. The proposed approach was applied on four case studies and its results were so close to measured ones. The proposed approach could be used in designing or testing the dynamic compaction procedures and also in monitoring the quality of execution by comparing the measured settlement after each drop with calculated one

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Simplified Approach to Consider Cracking Effect on the Behavior of Laterally Loaded RC Piles - 01/1

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

01/10/2015

Laterally loaded pile is a famous case of soil-structure interaction problem which was intensively studied by many researchers before. The techniques used to predict the behavior of laterally loaded piles were developed with increasing of the available computational capabilities from closed mathematical formulas to finite differences technique and finally linear finite elements technique. Recently, very sophisticated 3D elasto-plastic nonlinear finite element models were used to accurately predict that behavior. Unfortunately, those sophisticated models are too complicated to be used in practical design. Hence, the aim of this research is to introduce a much simpler and practical approach to predict the behavior of the laterally loaded concrete piles considering the nonlinear effect of concrete cracking. Special calculating tool based on finite elements is developed to carry out a parametric study of the behavior of a set of 24 piles with different aspect ratios, reinforcement ratios, relative stiffness and head constrains. The validity of the calculating tool is checked against case history field tests. The results of the parametric study show three different failure modes according to the flexibility of the pile. Comparing the results with the formulas of ECP (202/4) shows the matching in the ultimate lateral capacity, while the ultimate lateral deformations are about (127 to 132%) of the code prediction.

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Estimating the economic quantities of different concrete slab types - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Amr Hashish

01/05/2015

The economy of the structural design of reinforced concrete buildings is usually evaluated by comparing the concrete volume per unit area and rebar weight per unit volume with certain empirical values depending on the type of the structure and the past experience of the judging engineer. The aim of this paper is to refine those empirical values and give that past experience the required scientific base. In order to achieve that goal, simplified methods of design that stated in most of reinforced concrete design codes are used to figure out the required quantities of concrete and reinforcement steel for different structural elements and types. Some reasonable assumptions are used to facilitate the mathematical formulas to be usable and presentable. Produced formulas are accurate enough to be used in rough estimation of concrete and rebar quantities, check quantity surveying results and evaluate the economy of the structural design.

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Optimum replacement depth to control heave of swelling clays - 01/0

Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elkhaleq Ebid

Hesham Arafat

01/03/2015

The behavior of unsaturated swelling soils under changing of moisture content was intensively studied by many researchers since the 1950’s. Many proposed formulas and techniques were used to classify, describe and predict the swelling behavior and parameters of such type of soil. On the other hand, many techniques are used to allow structures to be founded on swelling soils without suffering any damages due to the soil heave. Replacing the swelling soil with granular mixture is one of the most famous and cheapest techniques especially in case of light structures on shallow layer of swelling soil. The aim of this research is to develop a simplified formula to estimate the heave of swelling soil considering the effect of replaced layer. The developed formula is used to estimate the required replacement depth to avoid damage due to excessive heave.

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