Introduction: characteristics of civil engineering projects, legend, scales and sizes of
drawings, types of projections, views, cross sections and details, Earthwork drawings:
geometric surfaces, hatching, use of contour lines for irregular surfaces, applications related
to canals, drains, roadways, earth reservoirs, landscape, Retaining walls and floors: shaping,
projection, hatching, typical cross sections, Applications on drawing complete structures:
half-earth-removed views, pitching and protection works.
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